ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā - Volume 1 > Various Traditions From al-Ridha (s)
Hadith #45

45 - حَدَّثَنا أَبي وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الحَسَن بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ الوَلِيد رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قالا: حَدَّثَنا سَعْدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّه قالَ: حَدَّثَني مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه المِسمَعِيُّ قالَ: حَدَّثَني أَحْمَدُ بْنُ الحَسَن المِيثَميُّ أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يَوْماً وَقَدِ اجْتَمَعَ عِنْدَهُ قَوْمٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ وَقَدْ كَانُوا تَنَازَعُوا فِي الْحَدِيثَيْنِ الُْمخْتَلِفَيْنِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فِي الشَّيْ‏ءِ الْوَاحِدِ فَقَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حَرَّمَ حَرَاماً وَأَحَلَّ حَلالاً وَفَرَضَ فَرَائِضَ فَمَا جَاءَ فِي تَحْلِيلِ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ أَوْ تَحْرِيمِ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ أَوْ دَفْعِ فَرِيضَةٍ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ رَسْمُهَا بَيِّنٌ قَائِمٌ بِلا نَاسِخٍ نَسَخَ ذَلِكَ فَذَلِكَ مَا لا يَسَعُ الأَخْذُ بِهِ لانَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيُحَرِّمَ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ وَلا لِيُحَلِّلَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلا لِيُغَيِّرَ فَرَائِضَ اللَّهِ وَأَحْكَامَهُ كَانَ فِي ذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ مُتَّبِعاً مُسَلِّماً مُؤَدِّياً عَنِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَذَلِكَ قَوْلُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلا ما يُوحى‏ إِلَيَّ فَكَانَ‏مُتَّبِعاً لِلَّهِ مُؤَدِّياً عَنِ اللَّهِ مَا أَمَرَهُ بِهِ مِنْ تَبْلِيغِ الرِّسَالَةِ قُلْتُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرِدُ عَنْكُمُ الْحَـدِيثُ فِي الشَّيْ‏ءِ عَنْ رَسُـولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مِمَّـا لَيْسَ فِي الْكِتَابِ وَهُوَ فِيالسُّنَّةِ ثُمَّ يَرِدُ خِلافُهُ فَقَالَ وَكَذَلِكَ قَدْ نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ نَهْيَ حَرَامٍ فَوَافَقَ فِي ذَلِكَ نَهْيُهُ نَهْيَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَأَمَرَ بِأَشْيَاءَ فَصَارَ ذَلِكَ الأَمْرُ وَاجِباً لازِماً كَعِدْلِ فَرَائِضِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَوَافَقَ فِي ذَلِكَ أَمْرُهُ أَمْرَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَمَا جَاءَ فِي النَّهْيِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ نَهْيَ حَرَامٍ ثُمَّ جَاءَ خِلافُهُ لَمْ يَسَعِ اسْتِعْمَالُ ذَلِكَ وَكَذَلِكَ فِيَما أَمَرَ بِهِ لانَّا لا نُرَخِّصُ فِيَما لَمْ يُرَخِّصْ فِيهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَلا نَأْمُرُ بِخِلافِ مَا أَمَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ إِلا لِعِلَّةِ خَوْفِ ضَرُورَةٍ فَأَمَّا أَنْ نَسْتَحِلَّ مَا حَرَّمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أَوْ نُحَرِّمَ مَا اسْتَحَلَّهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَلا يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ أَبَداً لانَّا تَابِعُونَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مُسَلِّمُونَ لَهُ كَمَا كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏تَابِعاً لامْرِ رَبِّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مُسَلِّماً لَهُ وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ما آتاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَما نَهاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا وَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ نَهَى عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ لَيْسَ نَهْيَ حَرَامٍ بَلْ إِعَافَةٍ وَكَرَاهَةٍ وَأَمَرَ بِأَشْيَاءَ لَيْسَ بِأَمْرِ فَرْضٍ وَلا وَاجِبٍ بَلْ أَمْرُ فَضْلٍ وَرُجْحَانٍ فِي الدِّينِ ثُمَّ رَخَّصَ فِي ذَلِكَ لِلْمَعْلُولِ وَغَيْرِ الْمَعْلُولِ فَمَا كَانَ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏نَهْيَ إِعَافَةٍ أَوْ أَمْرَ فَضْلٍ فَذَلِكَ الَّذِي يَسَعُ اسْتِعْمَالُ الرُّخَصِ فِيهِ إِذَا وَرَدَ عَلَيْكُمْ عَنَّا فِيهِ الْخَبَرُ بِاتِّفَاقٍ يَرْوِيهِ مَنْ يَرْوِيهِ فِي النَّهْيِ وَلا يُنْكِرُهُ وَكَانَ الْخَبَرَانِ صَحِيحَيْنِ مَعْرُوفَيْنِ بِاتِّفَاقِ النَّاقِلَةِ فِيهِمَا يَجِبُ الأَخْذُ بِأَحَدِهِمَا أَوْ بِهِمَا جَمِيعــاً أَوْ بِـأَيِّهِمَا شِئْـتَ وَأَحْبَبْتَ مُـوَسَّعٌ ذَلِكَ لَـكَ مِنْ بَـابِالتَّسْلِيمِ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَالرَّدِّ إِلَيْهِ وَإِلَيْنَا وَكَانَ تَارِكُ ذَلِكَ مِنْ بَابِ الْعِنَادِ وَالإِنْكَارِ وَتَرْكِ التَّسْلِيمِ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ مُشْرِكاً بِاللَّهِ الْعَظِيمِ فَمَا وَرَدَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِنْ خَبَرَيْنِ مُخْتَلِفَيْنِ فَاعْرِضُوهُمَا عَلَى كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَمَا كَانَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ مَوْجُوداً حَلالاً أَوْ حَرَاماً فَاتَّبِعُوا مَا وَافَقَ الْكِتَابَ وَمَا لَمْ يَكُنْ فِي الْكِتَابِ فَاعْرِضُوهُ عَلَى سُنَنِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ فَمَا كَانَ فِي السُّنَّةِ مَوْجُوداً مَنْهِيّاً عَنْهُ نَهْيَ حَرَامٍ أَوْ مَأْمُوراً بِهِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ أَمْرَ إِلْزَامٍ فَاتَّبِعُوا مِمَّا وَافَقَ نَهْيَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَأَمْرَهُ وَمَا كَانَ فِي السُّنَّةِ نَهْيَ إِعَافَةٍ أَوْ كَرَاهَةٍ ثُمَّ كَانَ الْخَبَرُ الآْخَرُ خِلافَهُ فَذَلِكَ رُخْصَةٌ فِيَما عَافَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَكَرِهَهُ وَلَمْ يُحَرِّمْهُ فَذَلِكَ الَّذِي يَسَعُ الأَخْذُ بِهِمَا جَمِيعاً أَوْ بِأَيِّهِمَا شِئْتَ وَسِعَكَ الاخْتِيَارُ مِنْ بَابِ التَّسْلِيمِ وَالاتِّبَاعِ وَالرَّدِّ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَمَا لَمْ تَجِدُوهُ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْوُجُوهِ فَرُدُّوا إِلَيْنَا عِلْمَهُ فَنَحْنُ أَوْلَى بِذَلِكَ وَلا تَقُولُوا فِيهِ بِ‏آرَائِكُمْ وَعَلَيْكُمْ بِالْكَفِّ وَالتَّثَبُّتِ وَالْوُقُوفِ وَأَنْتُمْ طَالِبُونَ بَاحِثُونَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْبَيَانُ مِنْ عِنْدِنَا.قالَ مُصَنِّفُ هذا الْكِتاب رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ: كانَ شيخُنا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الحَسَن بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ الوَلِيد رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُ سَيِّئ الرَّأْي فِي مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّه المِسمَعيِّ راوِي هذا الْحَدِيثِ، وَإِنَّما أخرَجتُ هذا الخَبَرَ فِي الْكِتابِ، لانَّه كانَ فِي كِتابِ الرَّحْمَة وَقَدْ قَرَأتُهُ عَلَيْهِ فَلَمْ يُنكِرُهُ وَرَواهُ لي.

30-45 My father and Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Waleed - may God be pleased with them - narrated that Sa’d ibn Abdullah quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Mesma’ee, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Al-Hassan al-Maythami, “One day a group of people had gathered around Al-Ridha (s), and were arguing about two opposite traditions on the same subject which had been narrated on the authority of God’s Prophet (s). They asked the Imam (s) about it. He (s) said, ‘In fact, the Honorable the Exalted God has forbidden the forbidden things, has allowed the allowed things, and has made incumbent the incumbent deeds. One cannot rely on or act according to any traditions which allow what God has forbidden, or forbid what God has allowed. One cannot cancel any of the incumbent deeds which God has made incumbent (upon the people) in His Book and are clearly supported by traditions for which there are no instances of having been cancelled. God’s Prophet (s) never allowed what God forbade, never forbade what God allowed, and never changed any of God’s Decrees or anything which God made incumbent (upon the people). He was completely subject to God’s revelations and decrees and only delivered them (to others) from God. That is what the Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘…I follow but that which is revealed to me by inspiration…’ The Prophet (s) followed only God and delivered what God had ordered him to deliver.”Ahmad ibn Al-Hassan al-Maythami added, “I asked the Imam (s), ‘What should we do in instances in which there is a ruling on something from you - the Members of the Holy Household - which does not exist in God’s Book, but it is in the traditions and there is also an opposite tradition narrated on your authority.” The Imam (s) answered, “Yes, sometimes God’s Prophet (s) admonished against something. That is a kind of admonishing which is like that of God. It is no longer permitted to do what the Prophet (s) has admonished against. He (s) has also ordered to do things which are considered to be like the orders of the Sublime God’s. His orders are according to the Sublime God’s orders. Therefore, whenever there is an admonishment by God’s Prophet (s) for which there is a tradition which opposes it, acting according to that tradition is not permissible. The same holds true for what the Prophet (s) has allowed. That is because we (Members of the Holy Household) never allow (the people to do) what God’s Prophet (s) has not allowed (them) to do, and never order (the people) to do the opposite of what God’s Prophet (s) has ordered (the people) to do - except for in conditions in which there is some fear of harm (cases of concealment of faith ). It will never be the case that we allow what God’s Prophet has forbidden or forbid what God’s Prophet (s) has allowed, since we (- Members of the Holy Household -) are all the followers of God’s Prophet (s). We submit to the Prophet’s (s) orders and admonishments, just as God’s Prophet (s) submitted to the Honorable the Exalted Lord’s orders. The Honorable the Exalted God said, ‘…So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you…’ Indeed God’s Prophet (s) has admonished against things, which are not forbidden, but are not good to do. He (s) has also ordered to do things, which are not incumbent upon one to do, but are better to be done to be more noble. He (s) has then left the people free to chose to do them or not, whether or not they are excused from doing those things. There are cases in which God’s Prophet (s) has admonished against something since it is not good to do, or has ordered to do what is not forbidden to do or not incumbent upon one not to do. Therefore, if there are two traditions from us (Members of the Holy Household) in which one has ordered you to do something, while in the other one he (s) has admonished you against doing it, and someone has compiled both these traditions in the same book and has not denied either one of them; then you can follow either one if the tradition narrators are reliable. You are allowed to submit toGod’s Prophet’s (s) words or reject his knowledge and ours on that issue whenever the duty is not clear. Whoever refuses to submit due to being stubborn or wanting to deny God’s Prophet (s) is, in fact, a polytheist regarding the Majestic God. Therefore, you should first review the traditions that are narrated to you for which there is also an opposite tradition related to what is in God’s Book. Then use the one which agrees with God’s Book regarding what is forbidden and what is allowed and act accordingly. If you cannot find it in God’s Book, then refer to the traditions of the Prophet (s). Use the tradition which is in agreement with the traditions of the Prophet (s) regarding its being allowed or forbidden. However, when there is something which has been admonished against in the traditions, but then a tradition has come opposite to that, this is a permission to do what God’s Prophet (s) has admonished against, but has not forbidden to do. In such cases you can rely on either one. The person is allowed to chose, since both traditions are narrated on the authority of God’s Prophet (s). However, in cases which are neither of the above, you should leave the knowledge regarding them to us - Members of the Holy Household - and do not issue your own decrees, since we are more deserving to do so. You must be careful and stop at the doubtful instances, wait to understand them and search about them, until you get enough clarifications on them by us – Members of the Holy Household.”The author of this book (Sheikh Sadooq) - may God be pleased with him - said, “My Sheikh Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Waleed - may God be pleased with him - did not have a good opinion of Abdullah Mesma’ee who narrated this tradition. However, when I picked out this tradition from the book called KITAB AR-RAHMA and recited it for him, he did not object to it and let me include it here.