Al-Kāfi - Volume 5

Author: Shaykh Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-Kulaynī (d. 329 AH)
Translator: Shaykh Muhammad Sarwar

The Book of Jihad (Serving in the Army)

1. Virtue and Excellence of Serving in the Army

2. Jihad of Man and Woman

3. Kinds of Jihad (struggle)

4. To Whom Does the Obligation of Jihad Apply, and to Whom it Does not Apply

5. Mobilization Along with People when there is Fear for al-Islam

6. Under Whose Command Obligatory Jihad Takes Place?

7. ‘Amr ibn ‘Ubayd and al-Mu’taziliy Groups’ Visiting abu ‘Abd Allah ‘Alayhi al-Salam

8. The Recommendations of the Messenger of Allah and Amir al-Mu’minin, about Smaller Armed Expeditions

9. Chapter 9(a) - Granting Immunity

10. Chapter 9(b)

11. Chapter 9(c)

12. Challenging the Enemy for a Fight

13. Kindness to the Prisoners and Providing Him Food

14. Calling to al-Islam before Fighting

15. Chapter 13(a) - Matters about which Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘ Alayhi al-Salam, Recommended at the Time of War

16. Chapter 13(b)

17. It is not Lawful for a Muslim to Reside in a War Zone

18. Chapter 15(a) - Distribution of the Properties Captured from the Enemy

19. Chapter 15(b)

20. Chapter 15(c)

21. The Slogan

22. The Virtue of Maintaining Horses, Racing and Sharp Shooting Contests

23. Man’s Defending Himself Against the Thief

24. The Case of one Murdered over His Stolen Property

25. Chapter 20(a) - The Excellence of Martyrdom

26. Chapter 20(b)

27. Chapter 20(c)

28. Commanding others what is Obligatory and to Prohibit them from doing Evil

29. Chapter 22(a) - Rejecting Evil in one’s Heart

30. Chapter 22(b)

31. The Case of those who Displease the Creator to Please the Creatures

32. It is Detestable to Expose One’s Self to What He Cannot Endure

The Book of Commerce

1. Al-Sufiy People’s Visiting Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam

2. The Meaning of Zuhd (Asceticism)

3. Using the Worldly Resources as Means for Success in the Hereafter

4. The Degree Of Efforts Which One Must Make In Search For One’s Sustenance To Follow In the Footsteps of ‘A’immah ‘Alayhim al-Salam

5. Promoting The Quest For Sustenance And Work To Make A Living

6. Al^Ibla’ (Trying) in the Work for Living

7. Meticulous Effort to Make a Living

8. Receiving Sustenance from Unexpected Sources

9. The Detestability of Sleeping and Passing Time without Work

10. Detestability of Laziness

11. One’s Working in His House

12. Amending one’s Properties and Planning for one’s Living

13. Hard Work for the Family

14. Earning Lawful kind of Sustenance

15. Saving for One’s Living Expenses

16. Detestability of Offering Oneself for Hire

17. Performing Personally one’s Business Tasks

18. Buying and Selling Real Estate

19. Debts and Borrowing

20. Payment of Debts

21. To Retaliate and Offset for Debts

22. When a Man Dies Payment of his Debts becomes Due

23. The Case of One Who Borrows But Does Not Intend To Pay Back

24. Sell off Debts in Exchange for Debts

25. Etiquette of Asking for Payment

26. The Case of Delaying Due Payment

27. Lodging With a Borrower When Demanding Payment

28. Chapter 28(a) - The Case of Gift to a Creditor

29. Chapter 28(b) - Bail out and Assignment or Referral

30. Working for al-Sultan and his Rewards

31. The Conditions to Work for al-Sultan

32. Selling Arms to al- Sultan

33. The Crafts (Technologies)

34. The Legal Status of Income from Cupping Operation

35. Income from Eulogizing Someone to Make People Mourn

36. The Legal Status of Income from Hairdressing and Circumcising

37. The Legal Status of the Income of Female Singer from Singing and Selling Singers (Slave-girls)

38. The Legal Status of Income from Teaching

39. The legal Status of Income from Selling Copies of the Holy Quran

40. Gambling and Looting

41. Earning in Unlawful ways

42. Unlawful Earnings in the form of al-Suht such as Buying and Selling of Intoxicating Liquors . . .

43. Consuming the Properties of Orphans

44. The Amount a Supervisor of the Properties of Orphans Can Lawfully Use

45. Using the Properties of Orphans in Business and Lending

46. Safe Return of Trust

47. A Father and Son’s Using Each Others Properties

48. A Husband and Wife’s Using Each Other’s Properties

49. Found and Lost Properties

50. Gifts and Presents

51. Rule about Unlawful Interest

52. Unlawful Interest Does Not Apply Between a Father and Son

53. The Excellence of Doing Business and Giving It Proper Attention

54. Etiquettes of Doing Business

55. Excellence of Keeping Accounts and Books

56. Entering the Market Before Others

57. Speaking of Allah, Most High, in the Market

58. Words to Say When Buying for Resale Purposes

59. People With Whom Doing Business Is Not Recommended

60. Using Proper and Improper Measurements in Business

61. Cheating in Business

62. Swearing at the Time of Buying and Selling

63. The Case of Prices of Goods

64. The Case of Monopolization (Hoarding) Goods in Public Demand

65. Another Chapter

66. Excellence of Buying Wheat and Food

67. Detestability of Estimating and Preferability of Using Measurements

68. Continuing Profitable Businesses

69. Permissibility or Otherwise of Approaching Merchandise Long Before Other Merchants

70. Stipulations and the Choice to Dissolve a Business Deal

71. Buying an Animal Which Produces Milk Which He Uses then Returns It

72. Dispute between Buyer and Seller

73. Buying and Selling Fruits

74. Buying and Selling Food

75. The Case of Change of Prices of Certain Merchandise before Delivery

76. Excellence of Using Measuring and Weighing Tools

77. Mixing of Foods of Various Kinds

78. Using Local Measuring Tools Is the only Valid Tools

79. Purchase of Food in Salam (Advance Payment) Manner

80. Exchange of One Kind of Food Items for another Kind

81. Exchange of Animals for Cloth or Other Items of Goods

82. Exchange of Various Goods for Other Items of Goods

83. Selling Goods by Numbers and Estimate and Unknown Items

84. Buying and Selling Goods

85. Selling for Capital with an Additional Certain Percentage Profit (Murabahah) or a Certain Amount of Profit with Mention of Percentage Ratio

86. Advance Payment in the Transaction of Goods

87. Selling an Item of Merchandise Which the Seller Does Not Yet Have in His Possession

88. Excellence of Excellent Merchandise to Sell

89. Merchandise Sold on Credit Is Purchased Back for Cash at a Lower Price Called (‘ Aynah )

90. Merchandise Offered for Cash as Well as on Credit (Two Conditions in a Transaction)

91. Finding Defect in Merchandise after the Sale

92. Buying on Credit

93. Buying Slaves

94. Selling a Slave Who Owns Property

95. Buying Salves, Finding Defects, Returnable and Non-Returnable

96. Rare Ahadith

97. Separation of Slaves from their Relatives (Is Not Permissible)

98. If the Slave Asks his Master to Sell him or Stipulates to Give him Something

99. Advance Payment for Buying Slaves and Animals

100. Another Chapter on the Previous Subject

101. Milk, Wool and Ghee of Sheep Given for their Maintenance

102. Selling a Found Child and One Born Out of Wedlock

103. Comprehensive Heading on Goods That Are Lawful to Exchange in Transactions and Those Unlawful to Exchange

104. Buying Stolen Goods and Cheating

105. Buying Food from a People through Coercion

106. Finding the Merchandise after Delivery to Be of Different Quality

107. Selling Juice and Wine

108. Non-Refundable Deposit

109. Security Deposit ( Al-Rahn ) Mortgage

110. Disputes Arising From al-Rahn (Security Deposit, Mortgage)

111. Liability for Safe Deposit and Borrowing

112. Liability for Profit Sharing, Its Profit and Expenses ( Al-Mudarabah )

113. Liability of Technician or Person with a Certain Skill

114. Liability of Carrier Animals and Owners of Ships

115. Currency Exchange

116. Another Chapter about the Previous Topic

117. Impure Dirhams (Certain Silver or Gold Coins)

118. Borrowing Dirhams (Coins) to Keep the Good ones Among them

119. Loan That Brings Profit

120. The Case of one Who Gives Dirhams to Receive them in another City

121. Journey in the Sea for Business

122. Having a Business Where one Lives Is a Good Fortune

123. Mutual Settlement

124. Excellence of Farming

125. Another Chapter on the Previous Subject

126. Words to Say at the Time of Plantation

127. Chapter 126(a) - Matters Permissible or Otherwise in Renting Land

128. Chapter 126(b) - Renting (Qabala) Land for Farming in Exchange for a Certain Percentage of Produce

129. Partnership in Farming with Taxpayers and Others and Conditions Between Them

130. Contracting Taxpayers’ Land and the Tax on their Person; Contracting Land from Al- Sultan and then Contracting it to Others

131. The Case of Tenant of Land Who Dies Before Expiration of Lease

132. One’s Renting a House or Land and His Renting to another Tenant for Higher Price

133. The Case of one Who Contracts for a Work for a Certain Amount and then Contracts with another Person for More

134. Selling Vegetables and So On

135. Selling Pastures

136. Selling Water for Agriculture and Preserving Extra Water of Valleys and Floods

137. Reviving Barren Land

138. Al-Shuf’ One’s Rights of Pre-emption

139. Buying Al-Kharaj Land From Al-Sultan When Owners Are Coerced

140. Using Labors of Al-‘Aluj (infidel) for Free

141. Brokerage and Brokerage Fees

142. Partnership with al-Dhimmiy (non-Muslim Tax payer)

143. Asking for Reduction of Price After Concluding a Deal

144. Estimating Produce of Plantation

145. Rent From Tenant and His Responsibilities

146. Detestability of Using the Labor of a Worker before Agreeing on Wages and Delay Payment of His Wages

147. Hiring an Animal and Using Beyond Limit

148. Renting a House or Ship

149. Causing Losses ( Dirar )

150. Comprehensive Chapter on Limits of Rights

151. The Case of One Who Farms on Other’s Land

152. Rare Ahadith

153. Lending Without Witness

154. Rare Ahadith

155. Another Chapter about Previous Subject, Protection of Property and Detestability of Wasting

156. Liability for Animal’s Causing Losses

157. Another Chapter

158. A Slave Does Business Who Becomes Indebted

159. Rare Ahadith

The Book of Marriage

1. Love of Women

2. Domination of Women

3. Kinds of Women

4. Best Kinds of Women

5. Worst Kinds of Women

6. Excellence of Women of Quraysh

7. Virtuous Women are Fortunate Chance for a Man

8. Encouragement to Get Married

9. The Detestability of Living Single

10. With Marriage Sustenance Increases

11. Hard Work for Marriage

12. Choosing a Wife

13. Excellence of Marriage with a Religious Spouse and the Detestability of Marriage for the Sake of Wealth

14. The Detestability of Marriage with Barren Women

15. Excellence of Virgins

16. Signs of Praiseworthiness of Women

17. Rare Ahadith

18. Allah, Most Blessed, Most High, Has Created for People Similarities

19. The Desirability of Marriage for Women at Puberty and Fortifying them with Marriage

20. Women’s Desire More Intense than Men’s

21. Believers Are Good Match of Believing Women

22. Another Chapter about the Previous Topic

23. Marriage of ‘Umm Kulthum

24. Another Chapter

25. Proper Match for Marriage

26. The Detestability of Marriage with a Drunkard

27. Marriage of Fanatic (Enemy of ‘A’immah) and Skeptics

28. Marriage with Kurds and Sudan

29. Marriage of one Born out of Wedlock

30. Detestability of Marriage with Dimwitted and Insane People

31. Fornicator Man and Women

32. Marriage after Conjugal Relations Out of Wedlock

33. Marriage with a Taxpayer Female

34. Marriage of a Free Man with a Slave

35. Marriage in the form of Al-Shighar

36. Marriage with a Woman and ‘Umm Walad of Her Father

37. Women Whom Allah, Most Majestic, Most Glorious, Made Lawful for Marriage

38. Kinds of Marriage

39. Looking at a Woman with Intention to Marry

40. Detestability of Marriage Ceremony at Certain Times

41. Matters Preferable to Do During the Night of Marriage

42. Serving Food in Marriage Ceremony

43. Marriage without Khutbah Speech before (Solemnizing) a Marriage

44. The Sermon for Marriage

45. The Sunnah about Mahr

46. Mahr of the Marriage of Amir Al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam

47. Amount of Mahr today is the Mutually Agreed Amount

48. Rare Ahadith about Mahr

49. The Effect of Conjugal Relation on Mahr

50. One’s Intention about Payment of Mahr

51. The Case of a Certain amount of Mahr for a Woman and a Payment to Her Father

52. A Woman offers Herself as a Gift to a Man

53. Dispute between Man, Woman and Her Family about Mahr

54. Marriage without Witness

55. Woman Lawful in Marriage for the Holy Prophet

56. Marriage Without Guardian

57. Fathers Permission for a Girl’s Marriage

58. A Man Wants to Marry one’s Daughter and the Father Intends to Give Her to Another Man

59. Two Guardians, Each Gives a Girl to a Different Man in Marriage

60. A Woman’s Attorney Gives Her in Marriage to a Man Other Than What She Wanted

61. Marriage of Minors Does Not Bring them Love

62. Age Limit of Conjugal Relations (Consult Fatwah about the contents of this chapter)

63. Father Marries a Woman and His Son Marries Her Daughter

64. Giving Children in Marriage and Arranging Marriage for Them

65. A Man Loves a Woman, His Parents Want Another Woman

66. Stipulations in Marriage: The Permissible and Impermissible ones

67. Cheating in Marriage

68. Cheating from Man’s Side in Marriage

69. Rare Ahadith

70. Marriage with Virginity Stipulation

71. Conjugal Relation without Paying Mahr

72. Working for Hire as Payment for Mahr

73. Death Before Consummation of Marriage

74. One’s Marriage with a Mother or Sister of a Woman after out of Wedlock Conjugal Relation With Her Or going to Bed with One’s Mother-in-Law Or Stepdaughter

75. The Case of Sinful Relation of a Man with a Boy and Marriage with His Daughter or Sister

76. Because of Marriage People Who Become Unlawful to Marry

77. Another Chapter and a Mention of the Wives of the Holy Prophet

78. A Marriage and Divorce or Death before or after the Consummation of Marriage then Marries Her Mother or Daughter

79. Marriage with a Woman Divorced Against the Sunnah

80. Marriage with a Woman and Her Maternal or Paternal Aunt

81. Legalizing a Divorced Woman to Her Husband

82. Women who Become Unlawful for Marriage Forever

83. The Case of Four Wives and Divorcing one to Marry another before the end of the ‘Iddah (waiting period) or Marries Five Women at one Time

84. Marriage with Two Sisters at the Same Time: Free or Slave-girls

85. About the Words of Allah, Most Majestic, Most Glorious, ‘You must not Make Secret Dates . . .

86. Marriage with Taxpayers and Pagans of Whom Certain Ones Become Muslims and other do not Become Muslims or all of them Become Muslims

87. Breastfeeding

88. Limits of Breastfeeding to Take Effect

89. Meaning of Milk from Impregnating Agent (the Father)

90. After Weaning Breastfeeding does not have any Effect

91. Rare Ahadith

92. Another Chapter About the Previous Subject

93. Marriage with Nurse ( al-Qabilah )

94. Al-Mut‘ah (Advantageous Marriage)

95. Such Wives Are Like Slave-girls, Not Like any of Four Wives

96. It ( Mut‘ah ) Must Not Be Practiced if Not Urgently Needed

97. Al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage) Is Not Permissible With Non-Chaste Women

98. Conditions of al-Mut‘ah (Advantageous Marriage)

99. The Need to Mention Conditions after Nikah

100. Mahr (dower) in this form of Marriage, al-Mut‘ah

101. Waiting Period in al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage)

102. Addition in Time

103. Permissible Time Length

104. Al-Mut‘ah (advantageous marriage) Several Times with one Woman

105. Withholding Mahr in the Case of Her Violation

106. Her Statement about Her is Considered True

107. Virgins

108. Marriage with Slave Girls

109. Child Conceived

110. Inheritance

111. Rare Ahadith

112. Legalizing one’s slave-girl for His Brother in Belief or Husband

113. Conjugal Relation with the Slave-girl of one’s Son

114. Quarantine of a Slave-girl

115. The Captives

116. The Case of one’s Buying a Pregnant Slave-girl

117. A Man’s Freeing His Slave-girl Then Designate Her Freedom as her mahr (dower)

118. Woman Lawful for Slaves in Marriage

119. Slave’s Marriage without the Permission of the Master

120. Slave-girl’s Marriage without the Permission of the Master

121. Chapter 121- Marriage of Slave-girl and Slave Man

122. A man’s Giving his Slave-girl in Marriage to his Slave then Expresses His own Desire for Her

123. Marriage of Half Slave Half Free Person

124. Buying a Slave Girl Married to a Free Husband or a Slave

125. The Case of a Woman Whose Husband is a Slave Whom She inherits or Buys Him then Her husband becomes Her Slave

126. A Woman Whose Husband is a Slave then She Inherits him then Frees him then agrees to Marry Him

127. The Case of a Slave-girl Married to a Slave Who is then Freed or Both are freed

128. A Slave with a Free Wife and Is Set Free

129. The Case of Buying a Pregnant Slave-girl . . .

130. One’ Conjugal Relation and then another’s Conjugal Relation with a Slave Girl in the Same Menses Period . . .

131. Impregnating a Slave-girl and Accusations . . .

132. Rare Ahadith

133. Another Chapter about the previous Subject

134. A Slave Girl’s Conjugal Relation with Several Men in the Same Menses Period

135. A Man Goes to Bed with His Slave-girl then Sells Her then She Gives Birth Before Six Months and the Case of a Man Who Sells a Slave-girl Without Quarantine then Her pregnancy Appears after being Touched by the other Man

136. The Child of Whose one Parent is a Slave and one is Free

137. A Woman’s Marriage with Her Slave

138. Women Are Similar

139. Detestability of Celibacy

140. Rare Ahadith

141. Detestability of Conjugal Relation in Certain Times

142. Detestability of Conjugal Relation in a Room with a Child

143. Words to Say during Conjugal Relation

144. Word to Say during Going to Bed with One’s Wife

145. Contraception

146. Egocentricity, Pride or Jealousy of Women

147. Love of Women for their Husbands

148. The Rights of Husband on His Wife

149. Detestability for Women to Stop their Husband

150. Detestability for Woman Ignoring Makeup

151. Treating One’s Wife with Honor

152. The Right of Wife on Husband

153. Cordiality with Wife

154. Necessary Obedience to Husband

155. Lack of Virtue in Woman

156. Disciplinants for Women

157. Disobedience to Women

158. Keeping Secrets

159. Detestable Matters for Women

160. Lawful Instances of Looking at Women

161. Rules for Women

162. Man without Sense of Conjugal Relation

163. Looking at Taxpayers’ Women

164. Looking at Nomads and Bedouins

165. Head Scarf for Slaves ‘Umm Awlad (mother of children)

166. Shaking Hands with Women

167. The Holy Prophet’s Forming Allegiance with Women

168. Entering in the Chambers of Women

169. Another Chapter about the Previous Subject

170. Lawful Looks of Master and Slave

171. Castrated People

172. The Time for Compulsory Head Scarf

173. The Age When It Is Lawful to Kiss a Girl

174. Another Chapter About the Previous Subject

175. Treating a Female Patient

176. Offering Greeting of Peace to Women

177. Gheera (Vigilant Protectionism)

178. No Vigilance and Protectionism against Lawful Matters

179. Women’s’ Attending ‘Id

180. Lawful Matters for a Husband during His Wife’s Menses

181. Conjugal Relations During Her Menses Before Ghusl

182. Anal of Women

183. Masturbation and Conjugal Relation with Animals

184. Fornication

185. Female fornicator

186. Male Homosexuality

187. One Who Allows Sexual Intercourse in His Anus

188. Lesbianism

189. Protecting Others’ Privacy Is One’s Own Protection of Privacy

190. Rare Ahadith

191. Explanation of Lawful and Unlawful Matters in Marriage, Indecency and Fornication

192. Another Chapter About the Previous Subject